The paper is devoted to the study of the relationship between the dynamics of IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-α levels in serum and the level of physical development (PD) of children with community-acquired uncomplicated pneumonia (CAUP). It has been established that for children with CAUP who have an average physical development (APD) and body weight deficiency (BWD), gender features of the cytokine response to the inflammatory process in the lungs are typical. Boys with BWD, unlike girls in the corresponding group, have an increase in IL-1β and a decrease in IL-4 after treatment. Boys with APD have an increase in the content of IL-1β compared with girls in the corresponding group. Girls with overweight have lower content of IL-4 compared to those with APD and BWD.